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#1 Earth centred model

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During the many thousand years that human beings have been looking up at the stars, our concept of what the Universe looks like has changed dramatically. At one time, the magi EEarth sages of the world believed that the Universe consisted of a flat Earth or a square one, a zigarrut, etc. Over time, ancient astronomers became aware that some stars did not move like the rest, and began to understand that these too were planets. In Bpys giving blow job stories, we also began to understand that the Earth was indeed round, and came up with rationalized explanations for the behavior of other celestial bodies. And by classical antiquity, scientists had formulated ideas on how the motion of the planets occurred, and how all the heavenly orbs fit together. This gave rise to the Geocentric model of the universe, a now-defunct model that explained how the Sun, Moon, and firmament circled around our planet. The notion that the Earth was the center of the Universe is certainly an understandable one. To ancient people, looking up at the skies, it Earth centred model evident that the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotated around the Earth once a day. For the Earth-bound observer, the ground that they stood on seemed like a fixed point of reference, a flat plane from which to watch the circling cosmos. And over time, thanks Eargh centuries of Earth centred model by various civilizations — from ancient Babylonian and Egyptian astronomers to contemporary Mediterranean ones — a formalized system began to emerge that put the Earth at the center of all things. A comparison of the geocentric and heliocentric models of the universe. The earliest recorded example of a geocentric universe comes from around the 6th century BCE. It was during this time that...

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Claudius Ptolemy lived in Rome around AD. His model of the solar system and heavenly sphere was a refinement of previous models developed by Greek astronomers. It is beyond the scope of this course to discuss all the complex social and historical implications of an Earth-centered versus a Sun-centered model of the solar system. The Ptolemaic model accounted for the apparent motions of the planets in a very direct way, by assuming that each planet moved on a small sphere or circle, called an epicycle, that moved on a larger sphere or circle, called a deferent. The stars, it was assumed, moved on a celestial sphere around the outside of the planetary spheres. Ptolemy's fame comes partly from what he figured out, but his influence was largely because he wrote a great summary of everything known about astronomy. Ptolemy insisted that the job of the astronomer was to explain the motions of the wanderers using only uniform circular motion - the kind of motion that most gears and wheels show. To make the planets appear to speed up and slow down, three tricks were used. The epicycles we've just shown were the first trick. The second trick was to move the observer out of the center of the circle, putting us into an "eccentric" position. The third trick was called the equant and is illustrated here:. As an indication of exactly how good the Ptolemaic model is, modern planetariums are built using gears and motors that essentially reproduce the Ptolemaic model for the appearance of the sky as viewed from a stationary Earth. In the planetarium projector, motors and gears provide uniform motion of the heavenly bodies. One motor moves the planet projector around in a big circle, which in this case is the deferent, and another gear or motor...

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In astronomy , the geocentric model also known as geocentrism , or the Ptolemaic system is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center. Under the geocentric model, the Sun , Moon , stars , and planets all orbited Earth. Two observations supported the idea that Earth was the center of the Universe. First, from the view on Earth, the Sun appears to revolve around Earth once per day. While the Moon and the planets have their own motions, they also appear to revolve around Earth about once per day. The stars appeared to be on a celestial sphere , rotating once each day along an axis through the north and south geographic poles of Earth. Ancient Greek, ancient Roman and medieval philosophers usually combined the geocentric model with a spherical Earth. It is not the same as the older flat Earth model implied in some mythology. The astronomical predictions of Ptolemy's geocentric model were used to prepare astrological and astronomical charts for over years. The geocentric model held sway into the early modern age, but from the late 16th century onward, it was gradually superseded by the Heliocentric model of Copernicus , Galileo and Kepler. There was much resistance to the transition between these two theories. Christian theologians were reluctant to reject a theory that agreed with Bible passages e. Others felt a new, unknown theory could not subvert an accepted consensus for geocentrism. The geocentric model entered Greek astronomy and philosophy at an early point; it can be found in pre-Socratic philosophy. In the 6th century BC, Anaximander proposed a cosmology with Earth shaped like a section of a pillar a cylinder , held aloft at the center of everything. The Sun, Moon, and planets were holes in invisible wheels surrounding Earth; through the holes,...

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During the fall of Rome in the 4th and 5th centuries and the Early Middle Ages c. There were only a few notable exceptions such as Martianus Capella of Carthage. In contrast to the Ptolemaic system where all the 'planets' orbited the Earth, Martianus proposed that Mercury and Venus orbited the Sun, with the Sun then orbiting the Earth. His work was later referred to by Copernicus. While progress in Europe was slow, Islamic astronomy flourished. A translation centre known as the House of Wisdom was established in Baghdad. This allowed astronomical works from a range of traditions such as Greek and Indian astronomy to be assimilated into Islamic thought important Indian astronomers include Aryabhata , Varahamihira and Brahmagupta. Over the coming centuries debates arose over the validity of the Ptolemaic model with astronomers such as Thabit ibn Qurra drawing out inconsistencies between Ptolemy 's geometrical model of the solar system and his physical view of it. On the other hand al-Battani greatly respected the Ptolemaic model and amended it by improving the model's treatment of the orbit of the Sun around the Earth. His work was cited at least twenty-three times in Copernicus 's De revolutionibus published in In this work, Copernicus aimed for a more elegant model, that disposed of the Ptolemaic equants. This attracted fervent support from Galileo. However, to achieve anything like accuracy, Copernicus had to place the sun a bit away from the center of the universe, and use even more epicycles than Ptolemy, which complicated the model. Other astronomers such as Brahe and al-Battani had developed geocentric models that gave more accurate predictions than the Copernican view, which therefore failed to catch on. Kepler then made a groundbreaking advance. He postulated that the planetary orbits were elliptical instead of circular, going against the...

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What does our Solar System really look like? If we were to somehow fly ourselves above the plane where the Sun and the planets are, what would we see in the center of the Solar System? The answer took a while for astronomers to figure out, leading to a debate between what is known as the geocentric Earth-centered model and the heliocentric Sun-centered model. The ancients understood that there were certain bright points that would appear to move among the background stars. The Earth was in the center of it all geocentric , with these planets revolving around it. So important did this become in culture that the days of the week were named after the gods, represented by these seven moving points of light. All the same, not every Greek believed that the Earth was in the middle. Aristarchus of Samos, according to NASA , was the first known person to say that the Sun was in the center of the universe. He proposed this in the third century BCE. The idea never really caught on, and lay dormant as far as we can tell for several centuries. Earth is at the center of this model of the universe created by Bartolomeu Velho, a Portuguese cartographer, in Because European scholars relied on Greek sources for their education, for centuries most people followed the teachings of Aristotle and Ptolemy, according to the Galileo Project at Rice University. For example, Mars occasionally appeared to move backward with respect to the stars before moving forward again. Ptolemy and others explained this using a system called epicycles, which had the planets moving in little circles within their greater orbits. But by the fifteen and sixteenth centuries, astronomers in Europe were facing other problems, the project added. Eclipse tables were becoming inaccurate, sailors...

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Jan 23, - The answer took a while for astronomers to figure out, leading to a debate between what is known as the geocentric (Earth-centered) model. Jan 11, - The notion that the Earth was the center of the Universe is certainly an The cosmological model of Aristotle, with a spherical Earth at the. Ptolemy's model: "Earth-centered," or "geocentric" Ptolemy thought that all celestial objects — including the planets, Sun, Moon, and stars — orbited Earth. Earth, in the center of the universe, did not move at all.

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